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By experimenting in a rigorous way on a simplification of a CPS (i.e. a model), the modeling and simulation (M&S) process avoids cost, time and ethic constraints, and thus positions itself as a choice tool for the design of CPS. However, when applied to this context, the M&S process faces many specific challenges.

M&S process requires to take simultaneously into account several points of view, each related to skills belonging to different scientific fields. The challenges are then to integrate each domain formalisms and simulation software within the M&S process. This approach is defined by [Gomez et al] as co-simulation: « the theory and techniques to enable global simulation of a coupled system via the composition of simulators ». This brings the following challenges:

  1. Rigorously integrate the different kind of heterogeneity in a « system of systems » perspective;
  2. Provide guidelines, methodologies, tools tailored for the multi-simulation;
  3. Scale up the systems being designed;Tackling these challenges will result in improvements of our co-simulation platforms.

Gomez et al. Gomes, C., Thule, C., Broman, D., Larsen, P. G., & Vangheluwe, H. (2017). Co-simulation: State of the art.